In one of his last letters he did me the honor to suggest that I write a preface for this first American edition of his autobiography. This. I am glad to do, not only to. Information and Broadcasting, Government of India,. Patiala House, ). Thoughts of. Jawaharlal. Nehru,. (New. Delhi.:Jawaharlal Memorial Fund, Teen. Toward Freedom The Autobiography Of Jawaharlal Nehru (English).pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online.
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92 N Mehru WPL8 Toward freedojj^ the autobiography of Jawaharlal Nehru ** 92 M J>6-lUtl8 Nehru Toward freedom^ the autobiography of. JAWAHARLAL. NEHRU. The Discovery of India The Autobiography has been The decision of the Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund to. Title: JAWAHARLAL NEHRU AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY. Authors: NEHRU, JAWAHARLAL karavenriratt.tk, PRELIMINARY, kB, Adobe PDF, View/ Open.
Nehru was deeply influenced by the party's leader, Mahatma Gandhi. It was Gandhi's insistence on action to bring about change and greater autonomy from the British that sparked Nehru's interest the most. The British didn't give in easily to Indian demands for freedom, and in late , the Congress Party's central leaders and workers were banned from operating in some provinces.
Nehru went to prison for the first time as the ban took effect; over the next 24 years he was to serve a total of nine sentences, adding up to more than nine years in jail. Always leaning to the left politically, Nehru studied Marxism while imprisoned.
Though he found himself interested in the philosophy but repelled by some of its methods, from then on the backdrop of Nehru's economic thinking was Marxist, adjusted as necessary to Indian conditions.
In fact, hoping that Nehru would attract India's youth to the party, Mahatma Gandhi had engineered Nehru's rise. The next year, Nehru led the historic session at Lahore that proclaimed complete independence as India's political goal. November saw the start of the Round Table Conferences, which convened in London and hosted British and Indian officials working toward a plan of eventual independence.
After his father's death in , Nehru became more embedded in the workings of the Congress Party and became closer to Gandhi, attending the signing of the Gandhi-Irwin pact. Signed in March by Gandhi and the British viceroy Lord Irwin, the pact declared a truce between the British and India's independence movement.
The British agreed to free all political prisoners and Gandhi agreed to end the civil disobedience movement he had been coordinating for years.
Unfortunately, the pact did not instantly usher in a peaceful climate in British-controlled India, and both Nehru and Gandhi were jailed in early on charges of attempting to mount another civil disobedience movement.
Neither man attended the third Round Table Conference. Gandhi was jailed soon after his return as the sole Indian representative attending the second Round Table Conference.
The third and final conference did, however, result in the Government of India Act of , giving the Indian provinces a system of autonomous government in which elections would be held to name provincial leaders.
Gandhi said in January , "[Jawaharlal Nehru and I] had differences from the time we became co-workers and yet I have said for some years and say so now that Jawaharlal will be my successor. In response, the Congress Party withdrew its representatives from the provinces and Gandhi staged a limited civil disobedience movement in which he and Nehru were jailed yet again.
Nehru spent a little over a year in jail and was released with other Congress prisoners three days before Pearl Harbor was bombed by the Japanese. He joined in an independent inquiry that the Congress Party established.
But for Nehru, the decisive event came the next year, in His family had escaped the stifling heat of Allahabad for the elegant Savoy Hotel in the hill station of Mussoorie, leaving him to follow. A delegation of Afghani Muslims was in the same hotel. The British authorities, fearful of Hindu-Muslim collaboration, forbade Nehru to meet them. Rather than be ordered around by the British, he decided to stay at home in Allahabad.
At the same time, a group of peasants, protesting against exorbitant taxes and mass evictions, arrived from the hinterland district of Rae Bareli in hopes of finding Gandhi in the city.
But he was elsewhere. So instead, they headed for the Nehru family compound. And there they asked Nehru to go in Gandhi's stead, to lead a new inquiry. Nehru, with little else to do, agreed. What followed would overwhelm him. The peasants built roads overnight so that his car could pass deep into rural India; they rallied together again and again to lift his car when it became stuck in mud. Nehru had never seen anything like the wretched poverty he now encountered.
Akbar would write, "he was still an Indian sahib in a hat and silk underwear.
To his father, with whom he corresponded candidly, he wrote: "Greatness is being thrust on me. Joe, the public-school boy at Harrow, had become Pandit -- Teacher -- and the leader with Gandhi of the Congress Party.
If independence was the central political issue, then fighting poverty was the central economic issue. With independence achieved in August , poverty was the problem.
Whereas Gandhi and Nehru were united on political objectives, they were divided on economics. For Gandhi, the model was swadeshi, self-reliance -- simple home production of basic goods, self-sufficiency in the village, and a spinning wheel in every hut.
Why should colonial India export cotton to Manchester, only to import it back in the form of expensive clothing? Indians should make their own clothes. Gandhi had little time for socialism and class warfare. After independence, he lectured a group of Communists: "What to me is even more pathetic is that you regard Russia as your spiritual home.
Despising Indian culture, you dream of planting the Russian system here. He sought a different kind of self-sufficiency -- industrialization and the steel mill. His central objective was "to get rid of the appalling poverty of the people. Lenin had said that "communism equals Soviet power plus electrification. His adoption of the themes and ideas of the Labor Party was evident in his recurrent evocation of the commanding heights, the mixed economy, and the need for planning.
But he was also much impressed with the Soviet model, and embraced Five-Year Plans and central planning. While troubled by what communism did to freedom, he wrote during his last term in prison that "the Soviet Revolution had advanced human society by a great leap and had lit a bright flame which could not be smothered and that it laid the foundation for a new civilization toward which the world could advance.
Their sharply differing economic visions put Gandhi and Nehru very much at odds. In , Gandhi accused his appointed heir of being unfaithful to his economic vision of swadeshi and an India composed of harmonious villages. Narrow-minded people are much more likely to be untruthful and violent.
The country was thrown into shock and pervasive grief. Nehru had lost his spiritual father.
But now there was also nothing left to stop his economic program, which he pursued as prime minister until his death in