Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit. Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal tast. Brought Death into the World, and all our woe,. With loss of EDEN, till one. Paradise Lost. Book I. Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit. Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste. Brought death into the World, and all our woe. Download our free ePUB, PDF or MOBI eBooks to read on almost any device — your desktop, iPhone, iPad, Android phone or tablet, site Paradise Lost.
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Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Free PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. It is considered by critics to be. Saylor URL: karavenriratt.tk Attributed to: [Thomas H. Luxon] karavenriratt.tk Page 1 of Paradise Lost BOOK 1. John Milton ().
The Medieval strain was in conflict with the new leaning. Its cosmology and theology were different from later development. In Miltons poetry, the three conflicting strains blend into harmony. The moral and religious influence of Puritanism combines with the generous culture of the Renaissance.
Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes are comparatively more autobiographical element in Paradise Lost. Still, there is a conspicuous autobiographical element in Paradise Lost. All the twelve books have an autobiographical element in them. In Book-I itself several aspects of Miltons personality and views are implied or reflected. To Satan, the rebel arch-angel he gives his own firmness of character and unyielding pride.
Milton had the spirit of a rebel who would not yield on any account. He stood for freedom and was opposed to bondage which he identified with monarchy. That is why he sided with Parliamentarians. The heroic qualities of Satan reflect Miltons own.
When Satan speaks of the mind being its own place and in itself capable of making a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven, it seems to be Milton himself. Satans Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven seems to reflect Miltons thoughts.
Miltons classical scholarship is obvious in Paradise Lost Book- I. He refers to various characters famous in classical mythology. But at, he identifies these characters with fallen angels in the catalogue. The catalogue reveals Miltons contempt for the pagan creeds and deities; as a true Christian and the religion they represented was considered the work of the Devil.
The catalogue of devils in Book-I of Paradise Lost implies also the evils which Milton personally detested in reality-the violence, noise and cruelty of Moloch, the lust associated with Chemos, whose temple is significantly close to that of Moloch, for lust and murder coexist, and vice itself as personified by Belial.
It is Miltons personal hatred for wealth and avarice which finds expression in the attack of Mammon who is associated with the love of gold. Miltons denunciation of idolatry is inspired greatly by his Protestantism and rejection of what he considered to be the corruption in Roman Catholicism. Receive thy new possessor, one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven.
Miltons personal belief in the spiritual values of life makes him speak out against mans materialism. He condemns mans ransacking the bowels of Mother Earth to obtain gold and precious stones. His love of a simple, noble and pure life comes out in his criticism of the luxury and licentious life of the Court in the Restoration period in Lines What do you learn of Miltons beliefs from Paradise Lost?
One of the convenient of the epic is the use of expanded similes, in which an event, object or person is compared extensively with something quite different. Milton uses epic similes to intensify the effect he wants to produce. He spoke; and to confirm his words, outflow Millions of flaming swords, adrrawn from the thighs Of mighty Cherubim; the sudden blaze Far round illumined Hell.
Paradise Lost undoubtedly reflects the personality of Milton as well as his views and feelings. Nothing that was, Milton, nothing that happened to Milton, throughout his dreaming, passionate and disillusioning life, but is to be found in Paradise Lost. Indeed, the epic has been considered to be a spiritual autobiography. While the deep-rooted egoism of Milton detracts from the objective nature of the work, it gives the poem a lyrical intensity and emotional continuity which cannot be condemned.
Like the moon, whose orb, Through optic glass the Tuscan artist views At evening from the top Fesole. Paradise Lost is one of the greatest works in English poetry. The theme of the epic is lofty and also universal. It encompasses the whole vista of eternity. The poets imagination seems to know no limitation.
Such a vast scheme had hitherto not been attempted by any writer. The character is sublime. The unique quality of Paradise Lost lies in the fact that it brings about a happy fusion of two cultures, Hebraism and Hellenism. An essentially Christian subject has been dressed in pagan robes without incongruity. Miltons scholarship gives to Paradise Lost a place among the great classical epics of the world. Besides the dramatic quality of the first book of Paradise Lost, there are brilliant and vivid descriptions in it.
Though Milton had grown blind when he composed Paradise Lost, he had not lost the faculty of mentally visualizing his scenes. The description of Hell and Pandemonium are evidence of his descriptive skills. Milton possessed splendid narrative power too. He combines description with dialogues and actions in Book-I of Paradise Lost, as Satans speeches rouse the angels to assemble before him. Miltons grand imagination is revealed in the similes used in the first Book of Paradise Lost.
He gives us vivid pictures of the Bottomless Pit, and of the vast Lake of Fire in which countless angels with their gigantic stature lie. The similes bring out the sense of vast space and size. In consonance with Miltons grand imagination is the grandeur of his style; especially remarkable is his use of blank verse.
All the above mentioned factors make the power and beauty of Paradise Lost inexhaustible, and one of the greatest poems in English language. Miltons Paradise Lost, though cast in objective form of an epic, has emphatic subjective overtones. Thus we get to known of Milton, his feelings, beliefs, aspiration and views by reading the poem.
Kenneth Muir observes: Milton He was telling them why they had failed to establish the good society. Why they had welcomed back the monarchy. They had failed through their own weakness, their own sin. God was not to blame. Miltons beliefs are best reading all the twelve books of Paradise Lost.
In the last book we understand his political views, while his opinion of women comes out in picture of Eve. But even Book-I itself is enough to tell us about Miltons beliefs his genuine Christian piety and belief in religion and his faith in spiritual values and detestation of evil forces which are ever ready to corrupt man. The first epic simile is the comparison of Satan with Leviathan which is expanded to seven lines.
The effect is the impression not only of Satans huge size but also of the falseness of appearance, deception, and lack of caution of mans part when near danger. The words beast and scaly immediately evoke the qualities of evil. This simile not only suggests the apocalyptic sea-monster and his illusory promise but the confusing gigantism of the evil world in flux.
Lay entered Thick as autumnal leaves that strow the brooks: In Vallambrosa.. The lines are not always of even and regular iambic beat. There are slight variations.
Variety is specially introduced by the placing of the caesura or pause at different places in different lines. These pauses sometimes occur more than once in a line. The passage beginning Nine times the space that measures day and night shows how interestingly varied the placing of the caesura can be.
Miltons beliefs from Paradise Lost, Book-I. The comparison of Satans shield to the moon as seen through Galileos telescope once again suggests the huge size not only of the weapon but also of the figure which holds it. The moon is not smooth; the shield of Satan, too, has patterns upon it.
It brings to mind Homers description of the shield of Achilles in the Iliad. The simile used of Satans spear also emphasises his size. Milton sometimes uses an extra syllable in his line such as in Of rebel angels, by whose aid aspiring. At other places he loses syllables by suppressing the vowel sounds. An example is Till, as a signal given th uplifted spear.
The vowel sounds in givn and th are suppressed. The technique, known as elision, is used quite often by Milton. Rose like an exhalation, with the sound Of dulcet symphonies and voices sweet- In Paradise Lost, the combination of different qualities- Medieval, Renaissance and Puritan-becomes clear. The subject matter is clearly inspired by Miltons Puritanism. But of, medieval thought is not absent. As an artist, however, he continued the Renaissance tradition. In the description of Hell in Book-I of the epic, medieval influences are clearly traceable.
The scholastic mode argument is also evident. The clergy too is criticised for becoming atheistic as did Elis sons, who filled with lust and violence the house of God. Miltons criticism is prompted by his personal views and feelings. Milton personal circumstances are also evident in the poem. At the very beginning there is a poignant reference to his blindness Miltons use of the epic similes is not decorative, but functional.
Even as they add variety and human interest to the poem, they answer the demands of the narrative. They are picturing of the actions, ideas, and sentiments. The particular appeal of Paradise Lost lies in the blend of the Hebraic theme and Hellenic treatment. If it had been written from a totally puritan point of view with all its hatred of the world, it would have failed as poetry. The puritanical or Hebraic and humanist Renaissance or Hellenic elements have been blended.
Indeed, in Miltons poetry the ideals of the Renaissance and Puritanism are equal passions. A note on the use of classical mythology in Paradise Lost, Book-I. Milton is praised for the music, architectonic quality, variety and pauses in his verse.
He has strengthened blank verse without cramping it. He has given it grace without making it vapid. He has rounded off with finished care the single line without sacrificing the organic unity of the entire poem.
Blank verse is composed of lines each of which has ten syllables. Generally it is iambic pentameter without rhymes. Critics have termed it unrhymed heroic verse. In his Preface, Milton tells us that meter used by him is English heroic verse without rhyme-heroic referring to the iambic line of ten syllables.
Generally the second syllable of each of the five feet in the line is accented-such as in And justify the ways of God to men, or United thoughts and counsel, equal hope.
Blank verse is suitable for the exalted theme. He needed and he achieved the large and infinitely varied freedom of the verse paragraph which only blank verse allows, as Saintsbury points out.
Salient features of grand style as found in Paradise Lost Book-I. The opening sentence of Paradise Lost has sixteen lines. It is an example of what Milton refers to as the sense variously drawn out from one verse into another. The technique is also called enjambment. In Paradise Lost Milton had full scope for his planetary wheelings. It is because the sense is sustained through line after line, and because Milton takes pain to avoid coincidence of the rhetorical pauses with the end of the line, that we have the continuity of rhythm which is so characteristic a feature of blank verse.
Thus in Paradise Lost, we are aware more of paragraph than of individual lines. This is mainly because the strong pauses occur within the line. In Book-I, L.
While ten-syllable line remains in our ears a norm, there is another system comprising the irregular rhythmic units that flow from one caesura to another. And so we have the combined pleasure of recurrence and surprise manipulated by a supreme artist.
And all these effects contribute to the sense of what is being said. In general, Milton compels a reading much more rapid than most blank allows. Eliot has said that Miltons verse is never monotonous; its strength and intricate refinements every reader must experience for himself.
Can Satan be a sympathetic character? The names which Milton gives them are taken from classical myths. The chief of them were most wicked. They are associated with idol worship. When Satan calls them up, they all assemble on the plain of solid fire. They arrange themselves in orderly phalanxes and await their commanders orders.
The flag is unfurled, and there is music and deafening shouts of joy of the angelic warriors. About the music of Miltons verse there can be no two options. The swing and the movement of his verse are swayed by the movement of the thought in a way that can be felt by a delicate ear better than it can be described.
His rhythms are so much a part of his total effect, indeed of his very meaning, that he has to be read aloud. It has been remarked: He is like a great organist who, while never losing sight of ancient melody, adorns it with every conceivable variation which serve to show up in place of obscuring , the freshness and sweetness of the simple theme.
The stress on syllables also has variation. Sometimes Milton stresses both the fourth and the sixth syllables. Milton even uses rhyme sometimes as one of the devices to ensure that the blank verse sounds like verse.
Frequently, rhymes on alternating lines occur-entire and ire in L. There are also lines with rhyming words occurring at the caesura as the words bee and sea in L. Johnson called attention to the peculiarity of Miltons diction, saying that it is so far removed from common use that an unlearned reader, when he first opens the book finds himself surprised by a new language, Our language, Addison had said before, sunk under him. Miltons is a personal style, which T. Eliot points out, is not based upon common speech or common prose, or direct communication of meaning.
It violates the accepted rules of English grammars and syntax, so much so that Dr. Johnson said that he wrote no language. Milton had a preference for the unusual and recondite in vocabulary and construction, which led him to archaism on the one hand and to the substitution of foreign idiom particularly Latin, for English idiom on the other.
Milton used Latinisms, but one tends to forget that the seventeenth century reader was quite conversant with Latin and understood the implied Latin sense.
It goes without saying, in any case, that Miltons style is not a popular one. It is a highly intellectual and scholarly style meant for scholars. We also notice that the sonorous Latin words are often accompanied by simple native words-sciential sap, dark illumitable ocean, etc.
This mingling of native and Latin words, resulting in the interplay of monosyllabic and polysyllabic words, gives an effective rhythm to the language. Paradise Lost undoubtedly the greatest poem in English Language.
Inversion of adjective as in dungeon horrible is also common.
Omission of words: E. Use of one part of speech for another: Such as verb as noun in the great Consult began: adjective as noun, the papable obscure, for who whose rebellious and noun for adjective their dread Commander.
Unusual compound epithets: As in Heaven banished host, night- foundered skiff, bullion-dross. Archaism and Latinism in vocabulary: Such as emprise for enterprise. Many words are used in their original Latin sense: Afflicted is used to mean struck down in L.
All these characteristics may be found in English literature before Milton, but in Milton they become habitual features of style. In Miltons poetry more is meant than meets the ear. He means more than what he says. As the poets difficulty throughout the poem is to describe what cannot be exactly described- Heaven, Chaos, Hell, God, Angels, Devils-he throws out a broad hint or two of their intended shapes and appearance and asks the reader to imagine the rest. Thus Satans huge figure, which nobody can have an idea of, is described with a few suggestive strokes; head uplift above the wave, eyes that sparkling blazed, and other parts in bulk as large As whom the fables name of monstrous size.
No further details are, or could be given for it, could have made this infinite figure finite. And yet the picture impresses itself upon the mind as if it had been seen. Milton uses the images of a tower, an archangel, the sun rising through mists or in an eclipse, the ruin of monarchs, and the revolution of kingdoms to conjure up the description of Satan. All the other pictures in the poem are similarly suggested. The language of Paradise Lost is that of a scholar writing for scholars.
A beautiful illustration of the poets fondness for allusions is provided by his descriotion of Satan forces, which dwarfed the mightiest armies known to history or legend: the giant brood mentioned by Hesoid: the heroic race that fought at Thebes and Troy, mentioned by Homer; the knights of King Arthur, mentioned by Geoffrey of Monmouth; the Crusaders who fought the Saracens, mentioned in history; and the warriors of Charlemagne, mentioned in Italian epics.
The whole treasury of poetry and the whole storehouse of learning are at his command. He assumes that they are also at the command of his reader and accordingly he loads every drift of his verse with the ore of myth and legend, historical, literary, and scientific fact.
Of no other English style is erudition, so integral a part. Classical and Biblical are, of course, the most abundant. But of, in his commentaries on Satan, we get the other side of Miltons character-his Christian loathing for the arch-fiend. His piety finds expression in the very first lines of the poem. He invokes a Muse in classical tradition, but it is the Heavenly Muse he appeals to. It is the spirit who prefers the upright and pure heart to all the temples.
His personal veneration of the Bible also finds expression in the poem. The Latinised constructions and inversion of word-order become devices for attaining in English something of the effect of the loaded line of Latin verse, which is a legitimate aim in a poem that deliberately emulates Virgil, as B. Wright observes. Furthermore, despite these devices, it is not true that Miltons language is not based on common English of the educated man of his time.
Douglas Bush has correctly observed: For all bold and cunning pressures Milton exerts upon language, in its total effect; his style is one of grand simplicity; it is only after rapidly assimilating the large cinematic impressions that we study the subtle details.
Specially in the scenes between Adam and Eve after the fall, his language becomes very simple. Argument lies in the fact Milton has unconsciously glorified the character of Satan.
Suggestiveness is but a part of Miltons other habit, conciseness. He is master of what Raleigh calls, the packed line, which, in his words again, is our nearest native counterpart to the force and reserve of the high Virgilian diction.
Each word and phrase is loaded with full weight of meaning. If thou beest he; But O how fall'n! What though the field be lost? That Glory never shall his wrath or might [ ] Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace With suppliant knee, and deifie his power, Who from the terrour of this Arm so late Doubted his Empire, that were low indeed, That were an ignominy and shame beneath [ ] This downfall ; since by Fate the strength of Gods And this Empyreal substance cannot fail, Since through experience of this great event In Arms not worse, in foresight much advanc't, We may with more successful hope resolve [ ] To wage by force or guile eternal Warr Irreconcileable, to our grand Foe, Who now triumphs, and in th' excess of joy Sole reigning holds the Tyranny of Heav'n.
So spake th' Apostate Angel, though in pain, [ ] Vaunting aloud, but rackt with deep despare: And him thus answer'd soon his bold Compeer. O Prince , O Chief of many Throned Powers , That led th' imbattelld Seraphim to Warr Under thy conduct, and in dreadful deeds [ ] Fearless, endanger'd Heav'ns perpetual King; And put to proof his high Supremacy, Whether upheld by strength, or Chance, or Fate, Too well I see and rue the dire event, That with sad overthrow and foul defeat [ ] Hath lost us Heav'n, and all this mighty Host In horrible destruction laid thus low, As far as Gods and Heav'nly Essences Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains Invincible, and vigour soon returns, [ ] Though all our Glory extinct, and happy state Here swallow'd up in endless misery.
But what if he our Conquerour, whom I now Of force believe Almighty, since no less Then such could hav orepow'rd such force as ours [ ] Have left us this our spirit and strength intire Strongly to suffer and support our pains, That we may so suffice his vengeful ire, Or do him mightier service as his thralls By right of Warr, what e're his business be [ ] Here in the heart of Hell to work in Fire, Or do his Errands in the gloomy Deep; What can it then avail though yet we feel Strength undiminisht, or eternal being To undergo eternal punishment?
Fall'n Cherube , to be weak is miserable Doing or Suffering: but of this be sure, To do ought good never will be our task, But ever to do ill our sole delight, [ ] As being the contrary to his high will Whom we resist. If then his Providence Our labour must be to pervert that end, And out of good still to find means of evil; [ ] Which oft times may succeed, so as perhaps Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and disturb His inmost counsels from thir destind aim.
But see the angry Victor hath recall'd His Ministers of vengeance and pursuit [ ] Back to the Gates of Heav'n: The Sulphurous Hail Shot after us in storm, oreblown hath laid The fiery Surge, that from the Precipice Of Heav'n receiv'd us falling, and the Thunder, Wing'd with red Lightning and impetuous rage, [ ] Perhaps hath spent his shafts, and ceases now To bellow through the vast and boundless Deep.
Let us not slip th' occasion, whether scorn, Or satiate fury yield it from our Foe. Seest thou yon dreary Plain, forlorn and wilde, [ ] The seat of desolation, voyd of light, Save what the glimmering of these livid flames Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us tend From off the tossing of these fiery waves, There rest, if any rest can harbour there, [ ] And reassembling our afflicted Powers , Consult how we may henceforth most offend Our Enemy, our own loss how repair, How overcome this dire Calamity, What reinforcement we may gain from Hope, [ ] If not what resolution from despare.
Him followed his next Mate, Both glorying to have scap't the Stygian flood As Gods , and by thir own recover'd strength, [ ] Not by the sufferance of supernal Power. Is this the Region, this the Soil, the Clime , Said then the lost Arch-Angel, this the seat That we must change for Heav'n, this mournful gloom For that celestial light? Be it so, since he [ ] Who now is Sovran can dispose and bid What shall be right: fardest from him is best Whom reason hath equald, force hath made supream Above his equals.
Can make a Heav'n of Hell, a Hell of Heav'n. Here at least We shall be free; th' Almighty hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive us hence: [ ] Here we may reign secure, and in my choyce To reign is worth ambition though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell, then serve in Heav'n. But wherefore let we then our faithful friends, Th' associates and copartners of our loss [ ] Lye thus astonisht on th' oblivious Pool , And call them not to share with us their part In this unhappy Mansion, or once more With rallied Arms to try what may be yet Regaind in Heav'n, or what more lost in Hell?
Leader of those Armies bright, Which but th' Onmipotent none could have foyld, If once they hear that voyce, thir liveliest pledge Of hope in fears and dangers, heard so oft [ ] In worst extreams, and on the perilous edge Of battel when it rag'd, in all assaults Thir surest signal, they will soon resume New courage and revive, though now they lye Groveling and prostrate on yon Lake of Fire, [ ] As we erewhile, astounded and amaz'd, No wonder, fall'n such a pernicious highth.
He scarce had ceas't when the superiour Fiend Was moving toward the shoar; his ponderous shield Ethereal temper , massy, large and round, [ ] Behind him cast; the broad circumference Hung on his shoulders like the Moon, whose Orb At Ev'ning from the top of Fesole, Or in Valdarno, to descry new Lands, [ ] Rivers or Mountains in her spotty Globe.
His Spear, to equal which the tallest Pine Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the Mast Of some great Ammiral , were but a wand, He walkt with to support uneasie steps [ ] Over the burning Marle , not like those steps On Heavens Azure, and the torrid Clime Smote on him sore besides, vaulted with Fire; Nathless he so endur'd, till on the Beach Of that inflamed Sea, he stood and call'd [ ] His Legions, Angel Forms, who lay intrans't Thick as Autumnal Leaves that strow the Brooks In Vallombrosa, where th' Etrurian shades High overarch't imbowr; or scatterd sedge Afloat, when with fierce Winds Orion arm'd [ ] Hath vext the Red-Sea Coast, whose waves orethrew Busiris and his Memphian Chivalry, While with perfidious hatred they pursu'd The Sojourners of Goshen, who beheld From the safe shore thir floating Carkases [ ] And broken Chariot Wheels, so thick bestrown Abject and lost lay these, covering the Flood, Under amazement of thir hideous change.
He call'd so loud, that all the hollow Deep Of Hell resounded. Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics locates virtue in the mean between excess and privation, but Uriel exempts the glorification of God from that dictum. That spot to which I point is Paradise, Adams abode, those loftie shades his Bowre. Luna in heaven, Diana on earth, Hecate in hell.
A mountain on the border between Armenia and Assyria. BOOK 4 THE ARGUMENT 5 10 15 20 Satan now in prospect of Eden, and nigh the place where he must now attempt the bold enterprize which he undertook alone against God and Man, falls into many doubts with himself, and many passions, fear, envy, and despare; but at length confirms himself in evil, journeys on to Paradise, whose outward prospect and scituation is discribed, overleaps the bounds, sits in the shape of a Cormorant on the Tree of life, as highest in the Garden to look about him.
Gabriel promises to find him ere morning. Night coming on, Adam and Eve discourse of going to thir rest: A large and voracious black sea-bird. Now conscience wakes despair That slumberd, wakes the bitter memorie Of what he was, what is, and what must be Worse; of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue. See note to lines 75—8. See John 3: What could be less then to afford him praise, The easiest recompence, and pay him thanks, How due!
Yet why not? Hadst thou the same free Will and Power to stand? Thou hadst: Be then his Love accurst, since love or hate, To me alike, it deals eternal woe. Me miserable! A Latinism, me miserum! Faustus 1. Which would but lead me to a worse relapse And heavier fall: This knows my punisher; therefore as farr From granting hee, as I from begging peace: The legal term for a formal pardon; unmerited favor of God.
See Isa. Yet higher then thir tops The verdurous wall of paradise up sprung: Which to our general Sire gave prospect large Into his neather Empire neighbouring round. Disorders arising from an imbalance of the four humors. As in a Greek amphitheater, the trees are set row on row. See Orlando Furioso Mozambique, off the southeast coast of Africa, noted for its fertility. Saba, the biblical Sheba 1 Kgs The Titan Oceanus. So since into his Church lewd Hirelings climbe.
So little knows Any, but God alone, to value right The good before him, but perverts best things To worst abuse, or to thir meanest use. Base men interested only in money. Milton would have clergy support themselves, doing away with tithes or state support. The province of Haran or Hauran on the eastern border of Israel. The Tigris, identified at 9.
Flower beds laid out in intricate regular designs, associated with Tudor garden art. Horae, goddesses of the seasons. Even as he denies the comparison Milton associates Eden with four famous beauty spots of classical myth. See 1 Cor. But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her: So passd they naked on, nor shund the sight Of God or Angel, for they thought no ill: God of the west wind, hence, to make a cool breeze welcome.
When Satan still in gaze, as first he stood, Scarce thus at length faild speech recoverd sad. O Hell! Gordian twine. See Ps. When Adam first of men To first of women Eve thus moving speech, Turnd him all eare to hear new utterance flow. Some of the fallen angels bear monarchical titles: Princedoms, Dominations, Thrones, etc. When Satan inhabits them, the future predators foreshadow their natures after the Fall.
Lying close to the ground, ready to pounce. Then let us not think hard One easie prohibition, who enjoy Free leave so large to all things else, and choice Unlimited of manifold delights: But let us ever praise him, and extoll His bountie, following our delightful task To prune these growing Plants, and tend these Flours, Which were it toilsom, yet with thee were sweet.
But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: By such a large difference.
Suspicious, reasonless. O fair foundation laid whereon to build Thir ruine! Hence I will excite thir minds inseparable, separate impregnates complained continually begrudge — In Iliad Book 4 With more desire to know, and to reject Envious commands, invented with designe To keep them low whom knowledge might exalt Equal with Gods; aspiring to be such, They taste and die: Live while ye may, Yet happie pair; enjoy, till I return, Short pleasures, for long woes are to succeed.
White, translucent marble veined with colors.
Passes over, obstructs. To whom the winged Warriour thus returnd: Uriel, no wonder if thy perfet sight, Amid the Suns bright circle where thou sitst, See farr and wide: But if within the circuit of these walks, In whatsoever shape he lurk, of whom Thou tellst, by morrow dawning I shall know.
Here and elsewhere Milton describes the cosmos in both Ptolemaic and Copernican terms. When Adam thus to Eve: Those Blossoms also, and those dropping Gumms, That lie bestrowne unsightly and unsmooth, Ask riddance, if we mean to tread with ease; Mean while, as Nature wills, Night bids us rest. To whom thus Eve with perfet beauty adornd.
But neither breath of Morn when she ascends With charm of earliest Birds, nor rising Sun On this delightful land, nor herb, fruit, floure, Glistring with dew, nor fragrance after showers, Nor grateful Eevning mild, nor silent Night With this her solemn Bird, nor walk by Moon, Or glittering Starr-light without thee is sweet.
But wherfore all night long shine these, for whom This glorious sight, when sleep hath shut all eyes? Heal or refresh by restoring the proper balance of elements or humors. The stars were thought to have their own occult influence, and also to moderate that of the sun.
Book 4 Millions of spiritual Creatures walk the Earth Unseen, both when we wake, and when we sleep: All these with ceasless praise his works behold Both day and night: Mark the watches of the night; also, perform musical divisions, elaborate melodic passages. Forest and field deities of classical mythology. Wedding song. Hymen was the classical god of marriage. The brothers were sons of the Titan Iapetos, who was often identified with Japhet, the third son of Noah.
The Eve—Pandora parallel was often noted. Our Maker bids increase, who bids abstain But our destroyer, foe to God and Man? These lulld by Nightingales imbraceing slept, only exclusive possession loves, affections lacking affection —9. Forbidding to marry. An embedded epithalamium wedding song originally sung outside the bridal chamber. Many of them were married. Men and women dancing together.
The ostentatious entertainments of the Stuart court. Ithuriel and Zephon, with wingd speed Search through this Garden, leave unsearcht no nook, But chiefly where those two fair Creatures Lodge, Now laid perhaps asleep secure of harme.
Such where ye find, seise fast, and hither bring. The source of false dreams in Homer Odyssey 6. The faculty that forms mental images. So started up in his own shape the Fiend. To whom thus Zephon, answering scorn with scorn. The highest of the three kinds of fine vapors produced in the human body: So spake the Cherube, and his grave rebuke Severe in youthful beautie, added grace Invincible: If I must contend, said he, Best with the best, the Sender not the sent, Or all at once; more glorie will be wonn, Or less be lost.
Now drew they nigh The western Point, where those half-rounding guards Just met, and closing stood in squadron joind Awaiting next command. To whom thir Chief Gabriel from the Front thus calld aloud. To whom with stern regard thus Gabriel spake. Completing the circle of the garden, half having swung left, half right. To whom thus Satan with contemptuous brow. Lives ther who loves his pain? Who would not, finding way, break loose from Hell, Though thither doomd?
The rest is true, they found me where they say; But that implies not violence or harme. Thus he in scorn. But wherefore thou alone? Put forward as an objection. Irony, i. To which the Fiend thus answerd frowning stern. Faithful to whom? See 5.
Frontier guard, also one of limited authority. Held slantways in front. Roman goddess of agriculture, here a metonymy for grain. A mountain in the Canary Islands. The Fiend lookt up and knew His mounted scale aloft: In several classical epic similes the fates of opposing heroes are weighed in scales by the gods: Iliad 8.
See also Isa. See Dan. They come forth to thir day labours: Thir Morning Hymn at the Door of thir Bower. God to render Man inexcusable sends Raphael to admonish him of his obedience, of his free estate, of his enemy near at hand; who he is, and why his enemy, 5 and whatever else may avail Adam to know. Raphael performs his message, minds Adam of his state and of his enemy; relates at Adams request 10 who that enemy is, and how he came to be so, beginning from his first revolt in Heaven, and the occasion thereof; how he drew his Legions after him to the parts of the North, and there incited them to rebel with him, perswading all but only Abdiel a Seraph, who in Argument diswades and opposes him, then forsakes him.
To advise or exhort a person against. God of the west wind. Goddess of flowers. They were consorts in Ovid, Fasti 5.
Botticelli, Primavera. Book 5 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Her hand soft touching, whisperd thus. The flowers appear on the earth; the time of the singing of birds is come. Produced by love and for love. Forbid who will, none shall from me withhold Longer thy offerd good, why else set here? Here, happie Creature, fair Angelic Eve, Partake thou also; happie though thou art, Happier thou mayst be, worthier canst not be: Forthwith up to the Clouds With him I flew, and underneath beheld The Earth outstretcht immense, a prospect wide And various: Thus Eve her Night Related, and thus Adam answerd sad.
Oft in her absence mimic Fansie wakes To imitate her; but misjoyning shapes, Wilde work produces oft, and most in dreams, Ill matching words and deeds long past or late. Which gives me hope That what in sleep thou didst abhorr to dream, Waking thou never wilt consent to do. So cheard he his fair Spouse, and she was cheard, strange, unpleasant fancy, imagination bring into the mind images compartment of the brain recent not sanctioned, not acted on are accustomed enclosed — Probably angel, as elsewhere, but perhaps also God, whose omniscience includes knowledge of evil.
So all was cleard, and to the Field they haste. Helios, or Sol, god of the sun, was imagined to drive the chariot of the sun from east to west. Their morning hymn works variations on Psalms , , and 19, as well as the canticle Benedicite. Book 5 Fairest of Starrs, last in the train of Night, If better thou belong not to the dawn, Sure pledge of day, that crownst the smiling Morn With thy bright Circlet, praise him in thy Spheare While day arises, that sweet hour of Prime.
His praise ye Winds, that from four Quarters blow, Breathe soft or loud; and wave your tops, ye Pines, With every Plant, in sign of Worship wave. Fountains and yee, that warble, as ye flow, Melodious murmurs, warbling tune his praise. Joyn voices all ye living Souls; ye Birds, That singing up to Heaven Gate ascend, Bear on your wings and in your notes his praise; group of four continually —8.
Venus, the morning star, is the last star to disappear at dawn and as Hesperus the first to appear in the evening. The other planets besides the moon and sun, already mentioned, are Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus or earth , which change positions. These motions produce the music of the spheres, audible to unfallen humans.
Tobit In cabbalism he is one of the four angels with Gabriel, Michael, and Uriel in charge of the four corners of the earth. Book 5 Happiness in his power left free to will, Left to his own free Will, his Will though free, Yet mutable; whence warne him to beware He swerve not too secure: A circular group of islands in the south Aegean sea. Modeled on the description of the Seraphim in Isa. Mercury, messenger of the gods. A cinnamon.
All were used to make perfumed ointments. To whom thus Eve. Neerer his presence Adam though not awd, Yet with submiss approach and reverence meek, As to a superior Nature, bowing low, Thus said. Unfermented grape juice. Meads, honey-sweetened drinks. Naturally scented, not needing to be burned as incense. Book 5 Whom thus the Angelic Vertue answerd milde. A while discourse they hold; No fear lest Dinner coole; when thus began Our Authour.
One of the traditional nine orders of angels in the scheme of Dionysius the Areopagite: Milton uses these titles freely, in the Protestant manner, without regard to this hierarchical order. Some angels are given more than one title: Roman goddess of fruit trees. To whom the Angel. Nor doth the Moon no nourishment exhale From her moist Continent to higher Orbes.
The three stages of digestion. That all features of the natural world require sustenance from creatures below them in the scale of being was a commonplace Cf. Pliny, Natural History 2. Robert Fludd, Utriusque cosmi historia , has an engraving that shows the sun supping with the ocean 1. Inhabitant with God, now know I well sweet, honey-flowing finicky, fastidious in show digestive experimental filled to the brim without lust shining in mist. See lines — above, and note.
In common theological use, the Roman Catholic doctrine that the bread and wine of the eucharist are in their substance transformed into the body and blood of Christ. A patristic tradition identifies them with angels as here though they are usually said to be human sons of Seth, as in Milton held that the universe was created out of Chaos, not out of nothing ex nihilo , the orthodox position. The primal matter of Chaos had its origin in God, who subsequently created all things from that matter see 7.
This materialist monism denies sharp distinctions between angels and men, spirit and matter, all being of one substance with different degrees of refinement. The soul derives her being from the spirits and so is material. Raised to a higher state, an alchemical term referring to the change of a solid into a gas.
According to the traditional dualist assumption, angels are pure spirits whose intuition immediate apprehension of truth is absolutely distinct from human reason which involved combining data and arguing from premises to conclusions.
But say, What meant that caution joind, if ye be found Obedient? To whom our great Progenitor. Thus Adam made request, and Raphael After short pause assenting, thus began.
Translates Horace, Odes 2. Countering a long philosophical tradition, Milton asserts the existance of time and motion in Heaven, before the creation of the universe see Christian Doctrine 1. The cycle completed when all the heavenly bodies simultaneously return to their original positions see, e. A common estimate of that cycle was 36, earth years.
Flags hung from a crossbar. Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. At Gen. See Phil. Traditionally understood to be Lucifer: The poem claims that his former name was blotted from the books of life see PL 1.
Sleepst thou, Companion dear, what sleep can close Thy eye-lids? Thou to me thy thoughts Wast wont, I mine to thee was wont to impart; Both waking we were one; how then can now Thy sleep dissent?
Assemble thou Of all those Myriads which we lead the chief; Tell them that by command, ere yet dim Night Her shadowie Cloud withdraws, I am to haste, And all who under me thir Banners wave, Homeward with flying march where we possess The Quarters of the North, there to prepare Fit entertainment to receive our King The great Messiah, and his new commands, Who speedily through all the Hierarchies Intends to pass triumphant, and give Laws.
His original name in Heaven is also lost, but he will come to be known as Beelzebub 2. In many epics a voice awakens heroes or villains from sleep and lures them to rash or adventurous acts. Let us advise, and to this hazard draw With speed what force is left, and all imploy In our defense, lest unawares we lose This our high place, our Sanctuarie, our Hill. An allusion to Satan as Lucifer, compared to the star Venus or Hesperus which bore the name Lucifer when it appeared as the first star in the morning see notes to lines and above.
Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Vertues, Powers, If these magnific Titles yet remain makes illustrious by the outcome armies dominions compared to sphere, globe spread out flat regions arrogating to himself dextrous.
See note to line , above. I will be like the most High. But what if better counsels might erect Our minds and teach us to cast off this Yoke? Will ye submit your necks, and chuse to bend The supple knee? Who can in reason then or right assume Monarchie over such as live by right His equals, if in power and splendor less, In freedome equal? Yet by experience taught we know how good, And of our good, and of our dignitie How provident he is, how farr from thought To make us less, bent rather to exalt Our happie state under one Head more neer United.
But to grant it thee unjust, That equal over equals Monarch Reigne: Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus? That we were formd then saist thou? Doctrin which we would know whence learnt: Suggests something like an incarnation of the Son for the angels. Then who created thee lamenting learne, When who can uncreate thee thou shalt know.
Abdiel speaks as an inspired prophet. See 2. Satan and his Powers retire under Night: Messiah returns with triumph to his Father. Artillery, cannon. Aurora, goddess of the dawn. On to the sacred hill They led him high applauded, and present Before the seat supream; from whence a voice From midst a Golden Cloud thus milde was heard.
Servant of God, well done, well hast thou fought The better fight, who single hast maintaind Against revolted multitudes the Cause Of Truth, in word mightier then they in Armes; And for the testimonie of Truth hast born Universal reproach, far worse to beare Then violence: Literal translation of the Hebrew name Abdiel. Echoes the parable of the talents Matt. True, upright reason, translating the Stoic and Scholastic recta ratio.
See 3. As one-third of the angels rebelled, God sends out only an equal number of those who remained loyal. Similes comparing armies to birds are epic commonplaces cf. So pondering, and from his armed Peers intervall. Latin, intervallum, the space between two armed camps. A mythical substance of great hardness. Proud, art thou met? Whom the grand foe with scornful eye askance Thus answerd. But well thou comst Before thy fellows, ambitious to win obstruction confidently there are those trial, attack —8 dissent.
Puritans who refused to adhere to the national church after the Restoration were termed dissenters. A term used by adherents of the Church of England and by Presbyterians to smear those who separated from the national church. Apostat, still thou errst, nor end wilt find Of erring, from the path of truth remote: So saying, a noble stroke he lifted high, Which hung not, but so swift with tempest fell On the proud Crest of Satan, that no sight, Nor motion of swift thought, less could his Shield Such ruin intercept: Milton often invoked the principle that tyrants are enslaved to their own passions.
What wonder? The supposed cause of earthquakes. Here as elsewhere Milton uses the name of one angelic order to stand for all. But the term is politically suggestive, linking monarchs with rebellion against God. Book 6 Of thy Rebellion? So spake the Prince of Angels; to whom thus The Adversarie. Nor think thou with wind Of airie threats to aw whom yet with deeds Thou canst not. Hast thou turnd the least of these To flight, or if to fall, but that they rise Unvanquisht, easier to transact with mee That thou shouldst hope, imperious, and with threats To chase me hence?
Literal translation of the Hebrew name Satan. The fluid angels bleed because they drink nectar; cf. Blood red. Provide themselves with limbs, dense or aery.
Mighty Gabriel Homeric diction. Banners, which identify the several divisions of troops. Thick rows of troops. King of fire, the Babylonian sun god worshiped in Samaria with human sacrifice 2 Kgs Asmodeus, creature of judgment, the evil spirit of the Apocryphal book of Tobit see PL 4.
All three names are used of good and bad angels in rabbinical and demonological texts. Therfore Eternal silence be thir doome. Literally, namelessness Latin. Scarcely able to defend themselves. Nocturnal councils called by an army defeated in a battle are common in epic.
An Assyrian god worshiped by Sennacherib 2 Kgs Sense of pleasure we may well Spare out of life perhaps, and not repine, But live content, which is the calmest life: But pain is perfet miserie, the worst Of evils, and excessive, overturnes All patience. Compactly packed. The touch-hole into which gunpowder is poured to serve as fuse for the charge.
Dilated and infuriate. Exploding violently. Cannon and gunpowder were often described as originating in hell. Nor long shall be our labour, yet ere dawne, Effect shall end our wish. Mean while revive; Abandon fear; to strength and counsel joind Think nothing hard, much less to be despaird.
Gunpowder; its ingredients are saltpeter and sulphur And thus was heard Commanding loud. Vanguard, to Right and Left the Front unfould; That all may see who hate us, how we seek Zophiel.
Without loss of composure. Responded to the call to arms. The passage is full of puns, e. These lines contain numerous debased puns relating to bodily functions, e. Chain shot, cannonballs linked together.
What should they do? O Friends, why come not on these Victors proud? Ere while they fierce were coming, and when wee, To entertain them fair with open Front And Brest, what could we more? To whom thus Belial in like gamesom mood. More puns: Into thee such Vertue and Grace humane, civilized compared to deliberating having considered show forth associate, sharer imperceptibly whole place permitted —2 Effulgence. Two omnipotences are a logical impossibility. There let them learn, as likes them, to despise God and Messiah his anointed King.
Mark 9: See especially Moving by its own power.
Gems worn by the high priest Aaron on his breastplate of judgment Exod. At once the Four spred out thir Starrie wings With dreadful shade contiguous, and the Orbes Of his fierce Chariot rowld, as with the sound Of torrent Floods, or of a numerous Host.
See lines and To meet him all his Saints, who silent stood destructive accustomed salvo turned desolate falling defeated army burdened in the wall An emblem of victory, cf. She is present for this story, see PL 7. The third invocation or proem. Milton constructs another derivation for her 5— Mount Olympus, the home of the classical gods and Muses. In Prov. So fail not thou, who thee implores: The universe, which seems to rotate daily, is the scene for the remainder of the epic.
Several of his republican colleagues were hanged, drawn, and quartered for their part in the revolution and regicide. Calliope, the Muse of epic poetry, was the mother of Orpheus.
The second epic question paralleling 1. Book 7 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 So easily obeyd amid the choice Of all tastes else to please thir appetite, Though wandring. Thus Adam his illustrious Guest besought: And thus the Godlike Angel answerd milde. This also thy request with caution askt Obtaine: Interfusus, poured between Latin. Pleas to continue a story are common in epic, see Odyssey Anough is left besides to search and know.
But Knowledge is as food, and needs no less Her Temperance over Appetite, to know In measure what the mind may well contain, Oppresses else with Surfet, and soon turns Wisdom to Folly, as Nourishment to Winde.
A commonplace. Davanant, Gondibert Now known as Satan, he is brighter among the angels than the morning star of that name is among the other stars. Once he had dispossessed us a Latinism. Echoes Job 7: Immediate are the Acts of God, more swift spread out in a moment. See below, —8. See Areopagitica on human nature and life in Eden: God therefore left him free, set before him a provoking object, ever almost in his eyes; herein consisted his merit, herein the right of his reward, the praise of his abstinence.
This principle allows an escape from biblical literalism. So sang the Hierarchies: Luke 2: